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What problems does hard water cause?

Scale formation on the inside of pipes, water heaters, showers causing choking of pipes, loss of energy in heaters and clogging of showers. In cooking hard water spoils the taste and needs more time to cook.

In washing, clothes requires more soap. vessels leave white stains.

It causes discomfort on skin and hair on bathing.

How does a water softener work? - The Ion Exchange Process.

The idea behind a water softener is simple. The Calcium and Magnesium ions in the water are replaced with ions of salt (either Sodium or Potassium). These salts do not precipitate in pipes or react badly with soap and therefore eliminate the hard water problem.

Water softeners contain Sodium rich ion exchanger resins that are designed to remove ions, mainly positively charged Calcium (Ca2+) and Magnesium (Mg2+) ions. This resin media exchanges the hardness minerals with its Sodium as the water passes through the media, thus making the water soft. This is called as the softening process.

Does the softener cartridge needs to be replaced after softener stops giving soft water?

In the process of softening the resin beads now exhausted with Calcium and Magnesium can no longer soften the water. Then it is time to recharge the resin. Recharging involves passing salt water ( common salt ) slowly through the resin bed in the reverse direction for a given time.

How does the POU softener compare with other softeners in the market?

Most softeners in the market are point of entry products (whole house) hence large in size and high on cost. Other POU softeners are not user friendly. For recharging the softener the salt solution is to be made and poured from a funnel or allowed to trickle via a hanging bag. Also the port tubing’s having to be physically reversed on the unit. The compact wall mounted POU softener has a multiport valve. Which directs the salty water to a separate drain line during recharging (no need to reverse the tubing's). Solid salt has to be filled into the POU unit for recharging. The product is user friendly.

Where can the POU softener be connected at home?

POU Softeners can be connected to geysers, showers, wash sinks and washing machines.

How much soft water will the product POU softener give?

Based on the Hardness content in the raw water the output of the softener can be estimated, typically if inlet hardness is say 500 ppm as CaCo3 in Soft water output will be around 300 litres.

How much of common salt is required for recharging the softener?

Every time the softener stops giving soft water, the POU unit has to be filled with around 500gms of salt and left in the recharging mode.

For how much of hardness is a softener required?

Water with around 20 ppm hardness is termed as soft Water upto 60 ppm hardness slightly hard Water upto 120 ppm moderately hard (improves with a softener) Water upto 180 ppm hard (big improvements with softener) Water over 180 ppm hardness – very hard

How is RO water compared to bottled water?

Just as good or even better. We use the same technology, reverse osmosis (RO), as other major bottling plants use to filter water. Our drinking water has a refreshing taste with a touch of minerals - not like the flat taste of distilled or bottled water. The five-stage system is the most stable and complete RO process. The best part is that our system allows you to proactively monitor and maintain the unit's performance and measure the purity of the water to ensure your family's health yourself. That is something that you cannot do with bottled water.

Tap water safety: I thought my city’s tap water was safe to drink?

It is a known fact that many municipal water distribution channels across American cities are in desperate need of replacement from old age and wear. Water contamination can occur at almost any point in the delivery channel including lead leaching from corroded pipe solder, bacteria entering the system from water main breaks, or gardening chemicals back-siphoned from a careless neighbour.

Unfortunately most local and state governments do not have the financial resources to address these very expensive problems now or in the foreseeable future. To make matters worse, most cities also add chemicals like chlorine and fluoride to their water. The truth is, tap water quality in the US will most likely continue to decline in the coming years. The best way to protect your family from the increasingly wide range of contaminants found in today’s tap water is by installing a reverse osmosis drinking water system.

How effective is Reverse Osmosis filtration compared to other methods?

RO is the most convenient and effective method of water filtration. It filters water by squeezing water through a semi-permeable membrane, which is rated at 0.0001 micron (equals to 0.00000004 inch!). This is the technology used to make bottled water, it is also the only technology capable of desalinating sea water, making it into drinking water.

Non-RO water filters typically use a single activated carbon cartridge to treat water. They are much less effective, and the pore size on these filter media are much bigger, generally 0.5 - 10 micron. They can filter out coarse particles, sediments and elements only up to their micron rating. Anything finer and most dissolved substances cannot be filtered out. As a result, water is far less clean and safe compared to reverse osmosis filtration

Does the reverse osmosis process affect water pH?

In chemistry, pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. We humans drink a variety of different beverages with varying pH ranges, from highly acidic orange and apple juice (3.3 pH), to mildly acidic milk and coffee (6 pH). Liquids that have a 7.0 pH are considered neutral and anything above that starts to become alkaline. Prior to any chemical reactions in the body, almost all drinks are naturally acidic. Water is an exception and can be both slightly acidic to mildly alkaline and drinking water ideally falls between a range of 6.5 to 8 pH.

Reverse osmosis filtration may or may not reduce the pH level of water at a noticeable amount. The pH difference after the RO depends on the composition of your input water source as well as the amount of gases such as CO2 in your local water supply. Water pH is actually a very complicated subject involving water and open air chemistry.

We have done many laboratory tests on the effects of our RO systems on water pH composition. The Southern California water sources used in our tests were slightly alkaline with an average pre-treatment rating of 8.12 pH. After filtration through our RO systems, the resulting pH averaged 8.06. Our results confirmed the conclusions of others in the scientific community –the reverse osmosis treatment process has very minimal effect on water pH chemistry.

People that wish to increase the pH of their RO water can also easily add an optional calcite filter to increase the alkalinity of their drinking water.

What is Cryptosporidium?

Cryptosporidium is a parasite that is commonly found in lakes and rivers. It enters water supplies through sewage and animal waste. It causes cryptosporidiosis, a gastrointestinal disease, with people that suffer from damaged immune systems. The largest water systems are now entering a testing program in which they check their source water for Cryptosporidium each month.

Are there any risks to hard water?

For many uses, hard water does not cause any problems. Hard water is not damaging to your health either. In the domestic environment hard water is not very efficient for certain uses: for bathing, washing dishes and clothes, shaving, washing a car, etc.

There are a number of negative effects to hard water, for instance: soap does not mix with hard water very well, when hard water is heated the hardness minerals can plug the pipes and hardness minerals often interfere with industrial processes. That is why hard water is often softe

What is microbiology?

Microbiology is the scientific field that is occupied with the study of microscopic organisms, commonly known as microrganisms.

What are microrganisms?

All living creatures consist of cells. Cells are very small basic units of life. They are the smallest structures capable of basic life processes, such as taking in nutrients and expelling waste. Cells can only be made visible by microscopes. Microrganisms are organisms that usually consist of one single cell. Because of this, they are often referred to as "single-celled organisms". They are so small, that humans cannot visualise them. We can only see them through microscopes, by which the cells are greatly enlarged.

At first, microorganisms were not seen as a separate kind. Microrganisms that carried out photosynthesis , were classified in the plant kingdom, and microrganisms that ingested food were placed in the animal kingdom. However, in the 19th century, scientists had identified a wide variety of microrganisms with diverse cell structures, very specific internal structures, and specific reproductive patterns that made them realize these organisms did not belong to the plant or animal kingdom.

What kinds of microrganisms are there?

Microrganisms are divided up by their cell characteristics, in the same way as plants and animals. There are two kinds of (micr)organisms. The first kind is the eukaryotic organism (protista). Most organisms are eukaryotic, which basically means that the cells they consist of contain nucleuses and other internal parts, surrounded by membranes. The second kind of microrganisms is the prokaryotic organism (monera). Prokaryotic cells are surrounded by a membrane, but they contain no nucleus or other internal parts (organelles), contrary to eukaryotic cells.

Monera and protests

The monera are bacteria and cyanobacteria. They are single-celled prokaryotic microrganisms, as was mentioned earlier. Bacteria are very important for other organisms, because they break down organic matter. During this process nutrients are formed, which are reused by plants and animals. Some of the bacteria that live on earth can cause disease, but most of them are quite useful as they aid animals in the decomposition of food in their bodies. Bacteria differ from other types of cells in the fact that they do not have a nucleus. With plants and animals this is where the DNA (genetic information) can be found. With bacteria the genetic material floats within the cell. They reproduce by first copying their DNA and than performing cell division. Bacteria also lack membrane-bound organelles, such as mitochondria, the cell structures involved in energy metabolism.

Bacterial cells are so small that scientists measure them in units called micrometers (µm), a millionth of a meter. An average bacterium is about one micrometer long.

Bacteria know several different kinds of subdivisions, such as spherical (coccus) and rod-shaped (bacillus) bacteria.

Spherical bacteria Rod-shaped bacteria

The protists are single-celled eukaryotic microrganisms, as mentioned earlier. Examples are amoebas, diatoms, algae and protozoa. These can be a danger to human and animal health, as certain protists can cause diseases, such as malaria and sleeping sickness. There are a wide variety of protists, and they inhabit many different environments; fresh water, seawater, soils, and the intestinal tracts of animals, where they perform crucial digestive processes.

Many species of protists can produce their own nutrients by the process of photosynthesis and many protists can also move around on their own accord. Protists vary greatly in size and shape; the green alga Nanochlorum is only 0.01 mm long, but giant kelps can grow to 65 m or more in length.

Which microrganisms in water cause diseases?

Sometimes microrganisms that cause health effects can be found in drinking water. However, as drinking water is thoroughly disinfected today, disease caused by microrganisms is rarely caused by drinking water.

People that swim in swimming pools will find that the water they swim in is disinfected with either chlorine, ozone, UV or chlorine dioxide. But there are people that swim outside in surface water every year. These are the people that are most susceptible to bacterial infections and infections caused by other microrganisms, because microrganisms often enter surface water through industrial discharge and animal excrements. When you are an outside swimmer, you always have to be careful and read the signs placed by the waterside, because the water you are swimming in may be infected, for example with botulism.

There are various bacteria and protozoa that can cause disease when they are present in surface water.

Bacteria are not only known to cause disease when they enter a human body through food, surface water may also be an important source of bacterial infection. In this table you can see various bacteria that can be found in surface water, and the diseases they cause when swallowed in large amounts, along with the symptoms.

Bacteria Disease / infection Symptoms
Aeromonas Enteritis Very thin, blood and mucus-containing diarrhoea
Campylobacter jejuni Campilobacteriose Flue, diarrhoea, head and stomachaches, fever, cramps and nausea
Escherichia coli Urinary tract infections, neonatal meningitis, intestinal disease Watery diarrhoea, headaches, fever, homiletic uraemia, kidney damage
Plesiomonas shigelloides Plesiomonas-infection Nausea, stomachaches and watery diarrhoea, sometimes fevers, headaches and vomiting
Salmonella Typhoid fever Fevers
  Salmonellosis Sickness, intestinal cramps, vomiting, diarrhoea and sometimes light fevers
Streptococcus (Gastro) intestinal disease Stomachaches, diarrhoea and fevers, sometimes vomiting
Vibrio El Tor (freshwater) (Light form of) Cholera Heavy diarrhoea

Protozoa can accumulate in certain body parts, after they have penetrated a human body. The accumulations are called cysts.

Because of their parasitic nature, protozoa can cause various diseases. In this table you can see various protozoa that can be found in surface water, and the diseases they cause when swallowed in large amounts, along with the symptoms.

Microrganism Disease Symptoms
Amoeba Amoebic dysentery Severe diarrhoea, headache, abdominal pain, chills, fever; if not treated can cause liver abscess, bowel perforation and death
Cryptosporidium parvum Cryptosporidiosis Feeling of sickness, watery diarrhoea, vomiting, lack of appetite
Giardia Giardiasis Diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, flatulence, belching, fatigue
Toxoplasm gondii Toxoplasmosis Flu, swelling of lymph glands
With pregnant women subtle abortion and brain infections
How do we eliminate harmful microrganisms from water?

To eliminate harmful microrganisms from water we tend to use disinfectants. Examples of disinfectants are chlorine, UV, Ozone (O3) and chlorine dioxide. Chemicals that are harmful to certain types of microrganisms are often used to eliminate them. These chemicals are known as biocides, because they are mortal to microrganisms.

How can microrganisms be made useful during water treatment?

Microrganisms can be used to decompose contaminants in wastewater. This kind of water treatment is called biological water treatment. During biological water treatment microrganisms break down organic matter, nitrates and phosphates. This is a brief explanation of how these biological water treatment processes work.

Removal of organic matter

Biological water purification is performed to lower the organic load of dissolved organic compounds. Microrganisms, mainly bacteria, do the decomposition of these compounds. There are two main categories of biological treatment: aerobic treatment and anaerobic treatment. Aerobic water treatment means decomposition of organic matter by bacteria that need oxygen during the decomposition process. Anaerobic water treatment means decomposition of organic matter by microrganisms that do not use oxygen.

In aerobic systems the water is aerated with compressed air (in some cases merely oxygen ), whereas anaerobic systems run under oxygen free conditions.

Removal of ammonium and nitrates

The removal of ammonium and nitrates is quite complex. It is a water treatment process that takes both aerobic and anaerobic conversion to remove the contaminants.

In the aerobic conversion stage there are two bacterial species involved. Firstly, Nitrosomonas bacteria convert ammonia to nitrite. Secondly, Nitrobacter bacteria convert nitrite to nitrate. These two processes together are commonly known as the nitrification process.

After that, the anaerobic bacteria take over. These bacteria convert nitrate to atmospheric nitrogen gas. This process is called denitrification. Denitrification is accomplished with many anaerobic bacteria, such as Achromobacter, Bacillus and Pseudomonas. The first stage of denitrification is the reverse of the nitrification process, it converts nitrate back to Nitrite The second stage of denitrification converts nitrite to gas ( N2). This gas can be freely released into the atmosphere without causing environmental damage.

Removal of phosphates

Phosphates can be removed from waste water by an aerobic (oxygen-dependent) bacterium, called Acinetobacter. This bacterium accumulates polyphosphates in the cell tissues.

The Acinetobacter can take up a higher amount of phosphates than it needs for its cell synthesis. The extra amounts of phosphates are stored in the cells as polyphosphates.

The storage of polyphosphates causes the Acinetobacter to be able to temporarily survive anaerobic circumstances. When the Acinetobacter resides in an anaerobic zone in the wastewater, it takes up fatty acids to store them as spare substances. During this process, polyphosphates are decomposed for energy supply, causing phosphates to be released into the aerobic zone. When the Acinetobacter enters the aerobic zone it takes up phosphates and stores them as polyphosphates in the cell tissues. This causes the phosphate content of the wastewater to decrease.

Are National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) certified water filters better than non-NSF certified water filters?

Not necessarily. To become certified by NSF, water filter manufacturers have to pay NSF various fees on an ongoing basis. A large number of manufacturers choose not to pay these fees and therefore not to have their products endorsed by NSF. Many of these manufacturers produce filters that are more effective than those produced by companies that have opted for NSF certification. You should evaluate a water filter based on the materials it is composed of and the reputation of the company that stands behind it.

What is Backwashing and do you recommend it?

Backwashing is the process of forcing water through a filter in the wrong direction to unclog the dirt and sediment which has blocked the filter. Backwashing is a common practice for certain whole house and commercial units which are treating large volumes of water for utility purposes but it is not a recognized practice for small point-of-use drinking water systems.

I notice that a reverse osmosis system will remove just about everything from my water, including some nutrients that are good for the body. Should I take a supplement to counteract the nutrients that I will no longer get through my water.

No, this is not necessary. You should already be getting all of the nutrients such as essential salts, vitamins, and other trace minerals from the food you eat and the other beverages you drink.

What is "crossflow"?

Quality reverse osmosis systems use a process known as crossflow to allow the membrane to continually clean itself. As some of the fluid passes through the membrane the rest continues downstream, sweeping the rejected contaminants away from the membrane and down the drain. This prevents contaminants from backing up against the membrane and clogging it.

How much purified water can a home RO system produce?

Our RO systems come standard with a membrane that produces about 50 gallons of purified water per day. An upgrade is available at a relatively low cost which allows you to boost production to 100 gallons per day. The upgrade kit includes a larger membrane and housing and a larger storage tank (20 gallons). The actual amount of water produced in your home will depend on your household water pressure. Because reverse osmosis water purification occurs slowly (it is a very fine filter!), a storage tank is used to hold 3 gallons of purified water at all times so pure water is always at your fingertips.

Do RO purifiers require frequent maintenance?

Maintenance needs of RO purifiers depend on the quality of incoming water. High turbidity in incoming water tend to choke first stage sediment filter frequently. Organic load and chlorine in the incoming water decide the life and efficiency of second stage activated carbon filter. Calcium, magnesium or other salts tend to scale third stage RO membranes which may require cleaning or replacement. Thus RO purifiers require planned maintenance schedules for replacements and cleaning.

Do RO purifiers remove pesticides?

RO purifiers reduce pesticide level in the water to certain extent. But a specially designed RO purifiers like Pristine is tested to remove generally encountered pesticides in surface and ground waters.

Can RO products be installed for any kind of water?

RO products cannot be installed for any kind of water. Contaminants like Iron, Manganese and Oil can cause severe damage to RO membranes. The manufacturers of RO purifiers specify the maximum limit of contaminants (like heavy metals, organics, nitrates, chlorine, oil, hydrogen sulphide, silica, iron, manganese, etc.) in water. They also mention maximum limit of feed TDS (generally 1500 to 2000 ppm) to ensure adequate RO membrane life.

Why do you need an RO purifier at home or office?

Municipal water treatment plants are miles away from our homes, treated water is likely gets contaminated during distribution.

Chlorine introduced by treatment plants can form harmful disinfection by-products such as TTHMs (total trihalomethanes) and HAAs (haloacetic acids) in drinking water. These chemicals are known carcinogens or cancer causing.

Hygiene of underground and overhead tanks of apartments and residential complexes is always a question.

Ground water is invariably high in salts and harmful chemicals.

Conventional water purifiers does not ensure complete removal of harmful chemical, excessive salts and all germs from drinking water.

What are the signs in raw water to go in for a RO water purifier?

A Reverse osmosis purifier should be purchased by anyone who is concerned about the purity/quality, hard water taste odor or levels of dissolved chemicals and excessive minerals in their drinking water.

What factors should a buyer look for in a RO purifier?

Is the product tested and certified from an accredited laboratory for complete removal of all organisms, harmful chemicals and for any specific chemical like Pesticide, Arsenic.

Does the product water quality meet international drinking water standards like USEPA, WHO.

Ensure that the product is from a company that thoroughly knows water purification – useful indicator is the number of years of experience and presence in this field.

What kind of Service attention does this RO purifier need?

When a purifier conditions or traps impurities, its filtering elements become a storehouse of dirt and disease causing organisms. Service is required for periodic washing, sanitizing and replacement of these filters.

This ensure good life of the filtering elements and therefore consistent purification performance.

What impurities are removed by RO?

Reverse Osmosis System removes excessive salts, bacteria, virus, cysts, suspended solids and all harmful chemicals like Pesticides and Arsenic and others from the water.

Does RO remove any useful minerals? If so, why should i purchase an RO system?

RO removes most of the minerals from the water; however the mineral content in water is much less than the mineral found in food. Minerals required by our body is derived mainly from food and less from water. For example, a 250 ml glass of milk contains more minerals than 20 litres of water. RO removes all objectionable minerals and chemicals from water which are responsible for the bad taste, saltiness & metallic taste in water. Reason, why Drinking water standards like USEPA has not set the lower limit of TDS (mineral salts) in drinking water.

Does a Purella RO kill or remove all bacteria & viruses present in water?

The RO membrane has a pore size (.0001 micron) much smaller than bacteria virus, pyrogen or the Cryptosporidium parasite. Hence it will remove all microorganisms.

How does it differ from my existing UV water purifier?

Conventional water purifiers use a filter to separate out only the larger particles of dirt sediments from water.

UV Systems use an ultra violet lamp to deactivate the bacteria & viruses present in the water without physically removing them. It does not alter the taste of water.

On the other hand, Reverse Osmosis not only removes suspended particles and microbiological organisms but also removes excessive salts, all harmful chemicals from raw tap water. Giving crisp, crystal clear double safe germ free water.

What is the difference between Purella RO purifier and other competitors?

Product comes from a company that leads the water treatment Industry in Indian since 40 years.

Product tested by leading laboratories in India for Microbial and chemical removal performance.

All products are backed by prompt & efficient after sales & service.

Is RO water equivalent to distilled water?

Distilled water is boiled, and the steam is then condensed for drinking water. Distilled water contains practically no minerals or dissolved solids, whereas RO water does contain trace amount of minerals and salts. Most people report RO as tasting better than distilled water, which can taste flat. Distillers use high electricity, whereas ROs work on mini low power booster pumps or on line pressure from the household plumbing.

How is RO water different from mineral water?

Mineral Water - Water which is first made absolutely free from minerals or salts. Thereafter, minerals or salts are added in required proportion for taste and to meet the drinking water standards.

RO Water can not be called mineral water because the salts or minerals are not dosed in it but are maintained by the rejection level of particular membrane.

Can an RO purifier work on borewell water?

Yes, an RO purifier will work on borewell water with limits of the water as specified. The raw water should not have Iron, Manganese or Oil.

How much of raw water is required to make 5 liters of good water?

About 15 – 20 of water is required to make 5 litres of pure water. Any RO purifier recovers about 25 – 30 % of the incoming water, the remaining impure water is rejected, it also keeps the membrane surface from too much salt build up and therefore gives better life of the membrane.

What does RO purifier comprise of?

Typical RO purifiers are multistage purification system. The first stage is sediment filter which reduces suspended particles. The second stage is carbon filter which reduces volatile organic matter, chlorine and other odour & taste causing compounds. Third stage is the membrane filtration using RO membrane. It is responsible for rejecting upto 98% of the total dissolved solids in the water. This is where purification takes place.

Conventional RO purifiers do not guarantee 100% bacterial removal all the time, especially in the event of an accidental failure of RO membrane. Pristine has got additional back up purifier which ensures 100% bacterial removal.

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